must be taken as soon as an error or failure has been identified
to mitigate the consequences of the error. Captain leadership, crew
assertiveness, and technical knowledge come to the fore in mitigating
the error for the least adverse outcome. To mitigate error consequences,
- All members of the crew/team must contribute and work together
for problem resolution.
- The captain must demonstrate leadership by:
assigning responsibilities to individual crew members,
who is to fly the plane while the problem is being addressed
by other crew members, and
Accepting input from the crew.
Each member of the crew must accept individual responsibility
to contribute to problem resolution and make sure his/her inputs
are heard and understood.
survival of 185 of 296 passengers and crew of UA 232 was attributed
to CRM. The crew used all resources available including assistance
from a DC-10 instructor on board as a passenger to mitigate the
consequences of an in-flight engine blowout. Shrapnel from the engine
damaged all three of the triple redundant hydraulic systems--a 1,000,000,000
to 1 probability. Captain Alan Haynes and his crew brought in the
DC-10 with no steering, no rudder, no ailerons, no elevators, no
flaps or slats, no brakes, no spoilers--only the throttles on #1
and #3 engines.
232 engine malfunction was tracked to human error during maintenance--an
undetected fatigue crack.